Rhode Island Red Chicken, common name for a hardy breed of domestic chicken. It was originally bred by a Rhode Island farmer from strains of red Malay and Shanghai chickens in the mid-1800s. Although used primarily for egg production, the Rhode Island red chicken is known as a dual-purpose breed because it is also a valuable source of meat. These valuable qualities have led to its exportation to countries around the world. The Rhode Island red chicken is the state bird of Rhode Island.

The male reaches a weight of about 4 kg (about 8.5 lb) and the female reaches 3 kg (6.5 lb). It has yellow skin and red feathers with some black feathers in its wings and tail. The deep color and strong constitution of this bird are attributed to its red Malay lineage. Its eggs are brown. Like all domestic chickens, the Rhode Island red chicken is descended from the red jungle fowl.